Abaqus principal stress

x2 For a 3D stress state the principal stresses become P1, P2 and P3. I'm currently working on setting-up a 2D bone remodeling problem of a femur from literature. I take a 2D femur geometry and give it an out-of plane plane stress / plane thickness in ABAQUS . Sep 16, 2011 · The principal plane is a plane oriented in a particular way such that the shear stresses go to zero. At any point in the slab, there exists a plane that (1) intersects that point and (2) has zero shear stresses. Now referencing that plane, there are three stress (1) that is normal to the plane and (2) that are in the plane. This video shows abaqus tutorials for beginners.This video gives you How to Find Stress,Displacement,Force at Particular Node and ElementOUR BLOG - https://t...The principal stresses are named P1, P2, P3. From the three principal stresses the absolute maximum value will be calculated and named worstPS. For example if a node has the three values 100, 0 and -110 MPa then -110 MPa would be shown. The three principal stresses are derived from the following equation: They are given by the three roots of ... Dec 13, 2021 · Abaqus 2022 is available. In this blog I will highlight some of the modifications and provide a list of other improvements so you can check them out yourself if the topic is of interest to you. Writing about a new release is always challenging, because the list of new features is too long to describe everything in detail. numerical material models available in the literature with the potential to develop complete stress-strain curves of concrete for compression and tension separately based on the experimental results. In this research, the ABAQUS program Hibbitt et al. (1988) is used to model the behavior of RCC beams. Keywords: - ABAQUS, RCC Beam, FEM The Mohr-Coulomb criterion assumes that failure is controlled by the maximum shear stress and that this failure shear stress depends on the normal stress. This can be represented by plotting Mohr's circle for states of stress at failure in terms of the maximum and minimum principal stresses.Using these values the principal stresses can be calculated and the equation to calculate the principal stresses are available in any strength of material books. The way you have calculated i.e.... In a Matlab script, I've used the strain components to calculate max principal strain by calculating the maximum eigenvalue of the strain tensor, which I setup based on the strain components. The eigenvalue calculation matches what Abaqus outputs for principal strain for many of the loading conditions; however, there are some loading conditions ...I am modelling a uniacial compression test of cylinder in abaqus. I need to extract principal stress value.I extracted force on surface, divided by area to get engineering stress value. After manipulation I obtained true stress but it's not matching with the S11 obtained from the abaqus. Your effort is deeply appreciated. . The principal stresses are named P1, P2, P3. From the three principal stresses the absolute maximum value will be calculated and named worstPS. For example if a node has the three values 100, 0 and -110 MPa then -110 MPa would be shown. The three principal stresses are derived from the following equation: They are given by the three roots of ... The Mohr-Coulomb criterion assumes that failure is controlled by the maximum shear stress and that this failure shear stress depends on the normal stress. This can be represented by plotting Mohr's circle for states of stress at failure in terms of the maximum and minimum principal stresses.For Abaqus/Explicit user subroutines that store stress and strain components according to the convention presented in " Conventions, " Section 1.2.2 of the Abaqus Analysis User's Manual, a number of utility routines are available for calculating principal stress/strain values and principal stress/strain directions from the relevant tensors.These routines are most commonly called from user ...Absolute maximum principal stress abaqus Get help with your researchJoin ResearchGate to ask questions, get input, and advance your work. University of Kerbala National University of Ireland, Galway When you display a vector variable in a symbol plot, you can choose from the following options: Display arrows that represent resultant values ofABAQUS provides output of the shear stresses at each slave node that uses a surface interaction model containing frictional properties. The shear stresses, CSHEAR1 and CSHEAR2, are given in the two orthogonal slip directions, which are constructed on the master surface (see "Contact formulation for ABAQUS /Standard contact pairs," Section 21. May 30, 2013 · Maximum Principal. This command sets the results display to calculate the maximum principal stress (S1) for displaying or data output. The principal stress can be displayed for element types with area (2D, plates, and so on) and volume (bricks). Positive (+) indicates tension, and negative (-) indicates compression. About Press Copyright Contact us Creators Advertise Developers Terms Privacy Policy & Safety How YouTube works Test new features Press Copyright Contact us Creators ...Jul 14, 2011 · For plane stress, membrane, and shell elements, only the in-plane tensor components (11, 22, and 12 components) are stored by Abaqus/Standard. The out-of-plane direct component for stress ( S33) is reported as zero to the output database as expected, and the out-of-plane component of strain ( E33) is reported as zero even though it is not. This ... Maximum principal stresses in a steel pipe of 4-inch diameter for the two aforementioned cases are demonstrated in Figure 3, where the vehicle moves at 30 km/h. As can be seen in Figure 3, for small burial depths, maximum principal stresses in the steel pipe due to the moving vehicle are more critical in the direction parallel to the pipe axis ... The configuration of the Abaqus model is done in AAA.inp and can be modified. Running the software ISML/ Run AAA_RunAbaqus.bat and then AAA_ExtractStress.bat. Another option is to use the Abaqus CAE to import AAA.inp, review the configuration, create a job, perform the analysis, then run the python script In Abaqus, my model uses shell elements. After the simulation when I try to compare the principal stresses, there are 4 possibilities : 1. Max In-plane Principal. 2. Max Principal. 3. Min In-plane Principal. 4. Min Principal. I was expecting 1. and 2. to produce the same values. Same goes with 3. and 4. ε plastic = ε-ε yield. First and third columns should be entered in Abaqus material properties as shown in the figure. Mechanical / Plasticity / Plastic. Enter tha table values in the 'create material' window. Pay attention to the units; Stress should be entered as Pascal, so e+6 at the end of each value is necessary.Jul 01, 2016 · A Recipe for FEA Stress Investigation. In summary, we have three main types of stress that we can use for investigation: Cartesian stresses, principal stresses and von Mises stress. I normally run through them in the following order when post-processing a finite element analysis model. Von Mises stress. This video shows abaqus tutorials for beginners.This video gives you How to Find Stress,Displacement,Force at Particular Node and ElementOUR BLOG - https://t...The principal stresses are named P1, P2, P3. From the three principal stresses the absolute maximum value will be calculated and named worstPS. For example if a node has the three values 100, 0 and -110 MPa then -110 MPa would be shown. The three principal stresses are derived from the following equation: They are given by the three roots of ... The stress and strain records (11 and 21, respectively) will be filtered out for processing by the ABAQUS utility routineSPRIND. When a stress or strain record is passed into SPRIND, principal stresses or strains and the corresponding principal directions are calculated and returned in an unsorted order. Jul 14, 2011 · For plane stress, membrane, and shell elements, only the in-plane tensor components (11, 22, and 12 components) are stored by Abaqus/Standard. The out-of-plane direct component for stress ( S33) is reported as zero to the output database as expected, and the out-of-plane component of strain ( E33) is reported as zero even though it is not. This ... This is NOT a material property, it is the resulting principal stress under the applied loads. So - you do not “enter” the value.. Try to read ABAQUS help. S11 and S22 are usually along the local axes of the element, which most of the times are coincident with global axes. They are not necessarily the principal stresses. S12 .... irock mod menu gorilla tag ABAQUS provides output of the shear stresses at each slave node that uses a surface interaction model containing frictional properties. The shear stresses, CSHEAR1 and CSHEAR2, are given in the two orthogonal slip directions, which are constructed on the master surface (see "Contact formulation for ABAQUS /Standard contact pairs," Section 21. The three principal values. SPRIND (calculate principal values and directions) Utility routine interface CALL SPRIND (S,PS,AN,LSTR,NDI,NSHR) Variables to be provided to the utility routine S A stress or a strain tensor. LSTR An identifier. LSTR =1 indicates that S contains stresses; LSTR =2 indicates that S contains strains. NDI Dec 13, 2021 · Abaqus 2022 is available. In this blog I will highlight some of the modifications and provide a list of other improvements so you can check them out yourself if the topic is of interest to you. Writing about a new release is always challenging, because the list of new features is too long to describe everything in detail. The three principal values. VSPRIND (calculate principal values and directions) Utility routine interface call vsprind ( nblock, s, eigVal, eigVec, ndir, nshr ) Variables to be provided to the utility routine s (nblock,ndir+nshr) Stress or strain symmetric tensor. nblock Number of material points to be processed in this call to VSPRIND. ndir The three principal values. SPRIND (calculate principal values and directions) Utility routine interface CALL SPRIND (S,PS,AN,LSTR,NDI,NSHR) Variables to be provided to the utility routine S A stress or a strain tensor. LSTR An identifier. LSTR =1 indicates that S contains stresses; LSTR =2 indicates that S contains strains. NDIMAXPS stands for “Maximum Principal Stress”. This is NOT a material property, it is the resulting principal stress under the applied loads. So - you do not “enter” the value. It is calculated. If you can’t see the difference between material properties and the calculated stress values - then you should stop using Abaqus. Fig. 5. P3 stress distribution for the overall structure Figs. 6 and 7 show, respectively, contours of maximum and minimum principal stresses P1 and P3 for the local lug region. The insert XY graphs show tensile principal stress running along the top lug fillet radius and compressive principal stresses running around the side fillet radius. In a Matlab script, I've used the strain components to calculate max principal strain by calculating the maximum eigenvalue of the strain tensor, which I setup based on the strain components. The eigenvalue calculation matches what Abaqus outputs for principal strain for many of the loading conditions; however, there are some loading conditions ...Feb 01, 2017 · Fig. 6 shows the decomposition of a model for a case involving model decomposition, and the comparison of the minimum principal stresses in Abaqus/CAE and ParaView. Download : Download high-res image (3MB) Download : Download full-size image; Fig. 5. Comparison of displacement using Abaqus/CAE (a) and ParaView (b). The model uses tetrahedral ... Apr 01, 2015 · ABSTRACTObjective: . To investigate the most reliable stress or strain parameters in subject-specific finite element (FE) models to predict success or failure of orthodontic mini-implants (OMIs).Materials and Methods: . Subject-specific FE analysis was applied to 28 OMIs used for anchorage. Each model was developed using two computed tomography data sets, the first taken before OMI placement ... This video shows abaqus tutorials for beginners.This video gives you How to Find Stress,Displacement,Force at Particular Node and ElementOUR BLOG - https://t...Principal Stresses. It is defined as the normal stress calculated at an angle when shear stress is considered as zero. The normal stress can be obtained for maximum and minimum values. The maximum value of normal stress is known as major principal stress and minimum value of normal stress is known as minor principal stress. Apr 01, 2015 · ABSTRACTObjective: . To investigate the most reliable stress or strain parameters in subject-specific finite element (FE) models to predict success or failure of orthodontic mini-implants (OMIs).Materials and Methods: . Subject-specific FE analysis was applied to 28 OMIs used for anchorage. Each model was developed using two computed tomography data sets, the first taken before OMI placement ... The stress and strain records (11 and 21, respectively) will be filtered out for processing by the ABAQUS utility routineSPRIND. When a stress or strain record is passed into SPRIND, principal stresses or strains and the corresponding principal directions are calculated and returned in an unsorted order. kubota 5 digit serial number In Abaqus, my model uses shell elements. After the simulation when I try to compare the principal stresses, there are 4 possibilities : 1. Max In-plane Principal. 2. Max Principal. 3. Min In-plane Principal. 4. Min Principal. I was expecting 1. and 2. to produce the same values. Same goes with 3. and 4. Jun 24, 2014 · In substance for one point there is a plane where the shear stress is zero.The 3 principal stresses define the stress in this point respect the plane and his 3 direction. The 1st is the largest. the 3th is the smallest. They can be negative or positive, in substance the opposite limit stress (with shear 0). Principal Stresses. It is defined as the normal stress calculated at an angle when shear stress is considered as zero. The normal stress can be obtained for maximum and minimum values. The maximum value of normal stress is known as major principal stress and minimum value of normal stress is known as minor principal stress. The three principal values. SPRIND (calculate principal values and directions) Utility routine interface CALL SPRIND (S,PS,AN,LSTR,NDI,NSHR) Variables to be provided to the utility routine S A stress or a strain tensor. LSTR An identifier. LSTR =1 indicates that S contains stresses; LSTR =2 indicates that S contains strains. NDIFig. 5. P3 stress distribution for the overall structure Figs. 6 and 7 show, respectively, contours of maximum and minimum principal stresses P1 and P3 for the local lug region. The insert XY graphs show tensile principal stress running along the top lug fillet radius and compressive principal stresses running around the side fillet radius. numerical material models available in the literature with the potential to develop complete stress-strain curves of concrete for compression and tension separately based on the experimental results. In this research, the ABAQUS program Hibbitt et al. (1988) is used to model the behavior of RCC beams. Keywords: - ABAQUS, RCC Beam, FEM In Abaqus (and other FEA programs as well) stress is calculate in so called integration points. These points are inside each element. But after the analysis user want to know the distribution of the stress over entire model. That's why the values from integration points are extrapolated to nodes.This is NOT a material property, it is the resulting principal stress under the applied loads. So - you do not “enter” the value.. Try to read ABAQUS help. S11 and S22 are usually along the local axes of the element, which most of the times are coincident with global axes. They are not necessarily the principal stresses. S12 .... Stress relievers can help restore calm to your chaotic life. When stress gets out of control, try these tips for quick relief. Hatha yoga, in particular, is a good stress reliever because of its slower pace and easier movements. Get enough sleep. Stress can cause you to have trouble falling asleep. "/> I am modelling a uniacial compression test of cylinder in abaqus. I need to extract principal stress value.I extracted force on surface, divided by area to get engineering stress value. After manipulation I obtained true stress but it's not matching with the S11 obtained from the abaqus. Your effort is deeply appreciated. . Oct 27, 2019 · Abaqus/CAE displays an X–Y plot of the longitudinal stress in each element versus time….To plot the stress curves: In the XYData container, drag the cursor to select all three X–Y data sets. Click mouse button 3, and select Plot from the menu that appears. Click in the prompt area to cancel the current procedure. Jul 14, 2011 · For plane stress, membrane, and shell elements, only the in-plane tensor components (11, 22, and 12 components) are stored by Abaqus/Standard. The out-of-plane direct component for stress ( S33) is reported as zero to the output database as expected, and the out-of-plane component of strain ( E33) is reported as zero even though it is not. This ... Subject: [Abaqus] Re: Principal Stress through USDFLD To: ***@yahoogroups.com Date: Thursday, January 22, 2009, 8:58 AM Dear Manoochehr, I suggest you to begin with an easy model for understanding what USDFLD subroutine does. I started with the following subroutine: C SUBROUTINE USDFLD(FIELD, STATEV,PNEWDT, DIRECT,T, CELENT, This is NOT a material property, it is the resulting principal stress under the applied loads. So - you do not “enter” the value.. Try to read ABAQUS help. S11 and S22 are usually along the local axes of the element, which most of the times are coincident with global axes. They are not necessarily the principal stresses. S12 .... dollar tree glass jars Maximum principal stresses distribution of the Miaoliang tunnel lining (Pa). From Fig. 6.45, it is known that the maximum principal tensile stress reaches 1.67 MPa in the connecting part of abutment 5# and the deck. The connecting part is at an easy rate to subject tensile failure. ABAQUS Max Principal Stress (Damage Evolution) Fri, 2016-09-02 16:54 - ACSU. Dear all, Do you know of any source that can provide appropriate values for maximum principal stress (Maxps) Damage together with the damage evolution (Displacement at Failure) for steel structures material? Thanks a lot. Forums:Feb 01, 2017 · Fig. 6 shows the decomposition of a model for a case involving model decomposition, and the comparison of the minimum principal stresses in Abaqus/CAE and ParaView. Download : Download high-res image (3MB) Download : Download full-size image; Fig. 5. Comparison of displacement using Abaqus/CAE (a) and ParaView (b). The model uses tetrahedral ... Dec 13, 2021 · Abaqus 2022 is available. In this blog I will highlight some of the modifications and provide a list of other improvements so you can check them out yourself if the topic is of interest to you. Writing about a new release is always challenging, because the list of new features is too long to describe everything in detail. Apr 01, 2015 · ABSTRACTObjective: . To investigate the most reliable stress or strain parameters in subject-specific finite element (FE) models to predict success or failure of orthodontic mini-implants (OMIs).Materials and Methods: . Subject-specific FE analysis was applied to 28 OMIs used for anchorage. Each model was developed using two computed tomography data sets, the first taken before OMI placement ... Max principal stress abs abaqus ... see Stress levels, section 1.5.3 of the ABAQUS manual). The tensor components in these cases are output in rotating local directions. In some cases, local output routes may vary from one integration point to another within an element. ABAQUS/Standard does not take into account this change inMax principal stress abs abaqus ... see Stress levels, section 1.5.3 of the ABAQUS manual). The tensor components in these cases are output in rotating local directions. In some cases, local output routes may vary from one integration point to another within an element. ABAQUS/Standard does not take into account this change inCalculator Introduction. Given the stress components s x, s y, and t xy, this calculator computes the principal stresses s 1, s 2, the principal angle q p, the maximum shear stress t max and its angle q s. It also draws an approximate Mohr's cirlce for the given stress state. Stress relievers can help restore calm to your chaotic life. When stress gets out of control, try these tips for quick relief. Hatha yoga, in particular, is a good stress reliever because of its slower pace and easier movements. Get enough sleep. Stress can cause you to have trouble falling asleep. "/> Oct 27, 2019 · Abaqus/CAE displays an X–Y plot of the longitudinal stress in each element versus time….To plot the stress curves: In the XYData container, drag the cursor to select all three X–Y data sets. Click mouse button 3, and select Plot from the menu that appears. Click in the prompt area to cancel the current procedure. You go to out put results column and read normal stress and shear stresses. Using these values the principal stresses can be calculated and the equation to calculate the principal stresses are available in any strength of material books. The way you have calculated i.e. force divided by area is not correct..ok all the best.. 0 votes 0 thanksAbaqus python max principal stress I finally found a solution to my problem which could help a lot of people (at least it helped my colleages). The solution proposed by max9111 to average stress values at the external node is the perfect and only solution if you want to know stresses at the surface through Abaqus scripting.Dec 13, 2021 · Abaqus 2022 is available. In this blog I will highlight some of the modifications and provide a list of other improvements so you can check them out yourself if the topic is of interest to you. Writing about a new release is always challenging, because the list of new features is too long to describe everything in detail. The three principal values. VSPRIND (calculate principal values and directions) Utility routine interface call vsprind ( nblock, s, eigVal, eigVec, ndir, nshr ) Variables to be provided to the utility routine s (nblock,ndir+nshr) Stress or strain symmetric tensor. nblock Number of material points to be processed in this call to VSPRIND. ndir The use of principal stress as a failure criterion should be restricted to brittle materials such as ceramics. Whilst it can be used in ductile materials such as steel, it is conservative in these applications. The von Mises criterion, which is a function of the three principal stresses, is far more accurate for ductile materials. The von Mises ...The principal stresses are named P1, P2, P3. From the three principal stresses the absolute maximum value will be calculated and named worstPS. For example if a node has the three values 100, 0 and -110 MPa then -110 MPa would be shown. The three principal stresses are derived from the following equation: They are given by the three roots of ... For Abaqus/Explicit user subroutines that store stress and strain components according to the convention presented in “ Conventions, ” Section 1.2.2 of the Abaqus Analysis User's Manual, a number of utility routines are available for calculating principal stress/strain values and principal stress/strain directions from the relevant tensors. In Abaqus, my model uses shell elements. After the simulation when I try to compare the principal stresses, there are 4 possibilities : 1. Max In-plane Principal 2. Max Principal 3. Min In-plane...The configuration of the Abaqus model is done in AAA.inp and can be modified. Running the software ISML/ Run AAA_RunAbaqus.bat and then AAA_ExtractStress.bat. Another option is to use the Abaqus CAE to import AAA.inp, review the configuration, create a job, perform the analysis, then run the python script The Mohr-Coulomb criterion assumes that failure is controlled by the maximum shear stress and that this failure shear stress depends on the normal stress. This can be represented by plotting Mohr's circle for states of stress at failure in terms of the maximum and minimum principal stresses. This is NOT a material property, it is the resulting principal stress under the applied loads. So - you do not “enter” the value.. Try to read ABAQUS help. S11 and S22 are usually along the local axes of the element, which most of the times are coincident with global axes. They are not necessarily the principal stresses. S12 .... About Press Copyright Contact us Creators Advertise Developers Terms Privacy Policy & Safety How YouTube works Test new features Press Copyright Contact us Creators ...The equivalent stress can be calculated in two ways, by using; 1) Von-Mises' formula which reaches the final value directly from the Primary and Shear stresses, and; 2) polynomial solution via the principal stresses. Both of which are completely different calculation methods. By way of an internal check, Combined Stress calculates the ... The principal stresses are named P1, P2, P3. From the three principal stresses the absolute maximum value will be calculated and named worstPS. For example if a node has the three values 100, 0 and -110 MPa then -110 MPa would be shown. The three principal stresses are derived from the following equation: They are given by the three roots of ... For Abaqus/Explicit user subroutines that store stress and strain components according to the convention presented in “ Conventions, ” Section 1.2.2 of the Abaqus Analysis User's Manual, a number of utility routines are available for calculating principal stress/strain values and principal stress/strain directions from the relevant tensors. ABAQUS Max Principal Stress (Damage Evolution) Fri, 2016-09-02 16:54 - ACSU. Dear all, Do you know of any source that can provide appropriate values for maximum principal stress (Maxps) Damage together with the damage evolution (Displacement at Failure) for steel structures material? Thanks a lot. Forums:3.2 Principal stresses. The calculation of principal stresses in 3D can be a relatively cumbersome process [1]; however they can also be determined from the eigenvalues of the stress tensor.. The principal stresses are defined by their algebraic magnitude, i.e. . Due to the way the principal stresses are defined, none of them are suitable for ... Karthigeyan . S. Dear Mr.Deep, You go to out put results column and read normal stress and shear stresses. Using these values the principal stresses can be calculated and the equation to calculate the principal stresses are available in any strength of material books. 2D Planar Elements •Both the plane stress and the plane strain conditions can be modelled using 2D plane elements •2D Planar Elements are defined by at least 3 nodes in a two-dimensional plane (x-y plane) •These elements can be connected at common nodes and/or along common edges •Some of the example structures that can be modelled. "/> 在abaqus中,一般是把x轴当做1轴,y轴当做2轴,z轴当做3轴;那么:. S11就是X轴向的应力,正值为拉应力,负值为压应力; S22就是Y轴向的应力,正值为拉应力,负值为压应力; S33就是Z轴向的应力,正值为拉应力,负值为压应力; S12 就是在YZ平面上,沿Y. The configuration of the Abaqus model is done in AAA.inp and can be modified. Running the software ISML/ Run AAA_RunAbaqus.bat and then AAA_ExtractStress.bat. Another option is to use the Abaqus CAE to import AAA.inp, review the configuration, create a job, perform the analysis, then run the python script These are the principal values of the pure shear case in the global coordinate system. In 2-D, the principal stress orientation, θP θ P, can be computed by setting τ ′ xy = 0 τ ′ x y = 0 in the above shear equation and solving for θ θ to get θP θ P, the principal stress angle. 0 = (σyy −σxx)sinθP cosθP +τ xy(cos2θP − ... In a Matlab script, I've used the strain components to calculate max principal strain by calculating the maximum eigenvalue of the strain tensor, which I setup based on the strain components. The eigenvalue calculation matches what Abaqus outputs for principal strain for many of the loading conditions; however, there are some loading conditions ... Absolute maximum principal stress abaqus Get help with your researchJoin ResearchGate to ask questions, get input, and advance your work. University of Kerbala National University of Ireland, Galway When you display a vector variable in a symbol plot, you can choose from the following options: Display arrows that represent resultant values ofAbout Press Copyright Contact us Creators Advertise Developers Terms Privacy Policy & Safety How YouTube works Test new features Press Copyright Contact us Creators ...The stress and strain records ( 11 and 21 , respectively) will be filtered out for processing by the Abaqus utility routine SPRIND. When a stress or strain record is passed into SPRIND, principal stresses or strains and the corresponding principal directions are calculated and returned in an unsorted order. Program compilation and linkingIn Abaqus, my model uses shell elements. After the simulation when I try to compare the principal stresses, there are 4 possibilities : 1. Max In-plane Principal. 2. Max Principal. 3. Min In-plane Principal. 4. Min Principal. I was expecting 1. and 2. to produce the same values. Same goes with 3. and 4. May 04, 2019 · Ratio of the tensile principal stress value at cracking in plane stress, when the other nonzero principal stress component is at the ultimate compressive stress value, to the tensile cracking stress under uniaxial tension. The default value is 1/3. (以上英文摘自ABAQUS手册,如果翻译的有瑕疵欢迎批评指正,尽情吐槽! Subject: [Abaqus] Re: Principal Stress through USDFLD To: ***@yahoogroups.com Date: Thursday, January 22, 2009, 8:58 AM Dear Manoochehr, I suggest you to begin with an easy model for understanding what USDFLD subroutine does. I started with the following subroutine: C SUBROUTINE USDFLD(FIELD, STATEV,PNEWDT, DIRECT,T, CELENT, May 04, 2019 · Ratio of the tensile principal stress value at cracking in plane stress, when the other nonzero principal stress component is at the ultimate compressive stress value, to the tensile cracking stress under uniaxial tension. The default value is 1/3. (以上英文摘自ABAQUS手册,如果翻译的有瑕疵欢迎批评指正,尽情吐槽! These are the principal values of the pure shear case in the global coordinate system. In 2-D, the principal stress orientation, θP θ P, can be computed by setting τ ′ xy = 0 τ ′ x y = 0 in the above shear equation and solving for θ θ to get θP θ P, the principal stress angle. 0 = (σyy −σxx)sinθP cosθP +τ xy(cos2θP − ...Jul 14, 2011 · For plane stress, membrane, and shell elements, only the in-plane tensor components (11, 22, and 12 components) are stored by Abaqus/Standard. The out-of-plane direct component for stress ( S33) is reported as zero to the output database as expected, and the out-of-plane component of strain ( E33) is reported as zero even though it is not. This ... Principal Stresses. It is defined as the normal stress calculated at an angle when shear stress is considered as zero. The normal stress can be obtained for maximum and minimum values. The maximum value of normal stress is known as major principal stress and minimum value of normal stress is known as minor principal stress. These are the principal values of the pure shear case in the global coordinate system. In 2-D, the principal stress orientation, θP θ P, can be computed by setting τ ′ xy = 0 τ ′ x y = 0 in the above shear equation and solving for θ θ to get θP θ P, the principal stress angle. 0 = (σyy −σxx)sinθP cosθP +τ xy(cos2θP − ... Dec 13, 2021 · Abaqus 2022 is available. In this blog I will highlight some of the modifications and provide a list of other improvements so you can check them out yourself if the topic is of interest to you. Writing about a new release is always challenging, because the list of new features is too long to describe everything in detail. The principal plane is a plane oriented in a particular way such that the shear stresses go to zero. At any point in the slab, there exists a plane that (1) intersects that point and (2) has zero shear stresses. Now referencing that plane, there are three stress (1) that is normal to the plane and (2) that are in the plane.Jul 01, 2016 · A Recipe for FEA Stress Investigation. In summary, we have three main types of stress that we can use for investigation: Cartesian stresses, principal stresses and von Mises stress. I normally run through them in the following order when post-processing a finite element analysis model. Von Mises stress. 2D Planar Elements •Both the plane stress and the plane strain conditions can be modelled using 2D plane elements •2D Planar Elements are defined by at least 3 nodes in a two-dimensional plane (x-y plane) •These elements can be connected at common nodes and/or along common edges •Some of the example structures that can be modelled. "/> 3.2 Principal stresses. The calculation of principal stresses in 3D can be a relatively cumbersome process [1]; however they can also be determined from the eigenvalues of the stress tensor.. The principal stresses are defined by their algebraic magnitude, i.e. . Due to the way the principal stresses are defined, none of them are suitable for ... 3.2 Principal stresses. The calculation of principal stresses in 3D can be a relatively cumbersome process [1]; however they can also be determined from the eigenvalues of the stress tensor.. The principal stresses are defined by their algebraic magnitude, i.e. . Due to the way the principal stresses are defined, none of them are suitable for ... lor pixel sequences download The terms step, increment, and iteration and two subsidiary terms—frame and attempt can be conceptually confusing to an Abaqus beginner. It is important that you clearly understand the difference between an analysis step, a load increment, and an iteration. 1.Step. A basic concept in Abaqus is the division of the problem history into steps.About Press Copyright Contact us Creators Advertise Developers Terms Privacy Policy & Safety How YouTube works Test new features Press Copyright Contact us Creators ...FE mesh and 3D max principal stress in Abaqus FE mesh of composite and load displacement curves 3D mesh of foot and simulated plantar pressure in Abaqus diabetic neuropathic and a healthy subject’s foot from MRI data, and to generate a high-quality mesh with conforming interfaces for simulation in Abaqus. Results agreed well Abaqus python max principal stress I finally found a solution to my problem which could help a lot of people (at least it helped my colleages). The solution proposed by max9111 to average stress values at the external node is the perfect and only solution if you want to know stresses at the surface through Abaqus scripting.The Mohr-Coulomb criterion assumes that failure is controlled by the maximum shear stress and that this failure shear stress depends on the normal stress. This can be represented by plotting Mohr's circle for states of stress at failure in terms of the maximum and minimum principal stresses.The principal plane is a plane oriented in a particular way such that the shear stresses go to zero. At any point in the slab, there exists a plane that (1) intersects that point and (2) has zero shear stresses. Now referencing that plane, there are three stress (1) that is normal to the plane and (2) that are in the plane.Dec 13, 2021 · Abaqus 2022 is available. In this blog I will highlight some of the modifications and provide a list of other improvements so you can check them out yourself if the topic is of interest to you. Writing about a new release is always challenging, because the list of new features is too long to describe everything in detail. 3.2 Principal stresses. The calculation of principal stresses in 3D can be a relatively cumbersome process [1]; however they can also be determined from the eigenvalues of the stress tensor.. The principal stresses are defined by their algebraic magnitude, i.e. . Due to the way the principal stresses are defined, none of them are suitable for ... FE mesh and 3D max principal stress in Abaqus FE mesh of composite and load displacement curves 3D mesh of foot and simulated plantar pressure in Abaqus diabetic neuropathic and a healthy subject’s foot from MRI data, and to generate a high-quality mesh with conforming interfaces for simulation in Abaqus. Results agreed well ABAQUS provides output of the shear stresses at each slave node that uses a surface interaction model containing frictional properties. The shear stresses, CSHEAR1 and CSHEAR2, are given in the two orthogonal slip directions, which are constructed on the master surface (see "Contact formulation for ABAQUS /Standard contact pairs," Section 21. Principal Stresses. It is defined as the normal stress calculated at an angle when shear stress is considered as zero. The normal stress can be obtained for maximum and minimum values. The maximum value of normal stress is known as major principal stress and minimum value of normal stress is known as minor principal stress. The stress and strain records (11 and 21, respectively) will be filtered out for processing by the ABAQUS utility routineSPRIND. When a stress or strain record is passed into SPRIND, principal stresses or strains and the corresponding principal directions are calculated and returned in an unsorted order. cabins for sale rosebud The three principal values. SPRIND (calculate principal values and directions) Utility routine interface CALL SPRIND (S,PS,AN,LSTR,NDI,NSHR) Variables to be provided to the utility routine S A stress or a strain tensor. LSTR An identifier. LSTR =1 indicates that S contains stresses; LSTR =2 indicates that S contains strains. NDI Abaqus python max principal stress I finally found a solution to my problem which could help a lot of people (at least it helped my colleages). The solution proposed by max9111 to average stress values at the external node is the perfect and only solution if you want to know stresses at the surface through Abaqus scripting.In a Matlab script, I've used the strain components to calculate max principal strain by calculating the maximum eigenvalue of the strain tensor, which I setup based on the strain components. The eigenvalue calculation matches what Abaqus outputs for principal strain for many of the loading conditions; however, there are some loading conditions ... Abaqus works very simply in the default method of determining the direction of fracture propagation using the criterion of maximum principal stresses, without the use of subroutines. It reads the stresses at each integration point that belongs to an element with an enrichment function. May 04, 2019 · Ratio of the tensile principal stress value at cracking in plane stress, when the other nonzero principal stress component is at the ultimate compressive stress value, to the tensile cracking stress under uniaxial tension. The default value is 1/3. (以上英文摘自ABAQUS手册,如果翻译的有瑕疵欢迎批评指正,尽情吐槽! This video shows abaqus tutorials for beginners.This video gives you How to Find Stress,Displacement,Force at Particular Node and ElementOUR BLOG - https://t...This is NOT a material property, it is the resulting principal stress under the applied loads. So - you do not “enter” the value.. Try to read ABAQUS help. S11 and S22 are usually along the local axes of the element, which most of the times are coincident with global axes. They are not necessarily the principal stresses. S12 .... Principal Directions, Principal Stress. The normal stresses ( s x' and s y') and the shear stress ( t x'y') vary smoothly with respect to the rotation angle q, in accordance with the coordinate transformation equations. There exist a couple of particular angles where the stresses take on special values. First, there exists an angle q p where ... In a Matlab script, I've used the strain components to calculate max principal strain by calculating the maximum eigenvalue of the strain tensor, which I setup based on the strain components. The eigenvalue calculation matches what Abaqus outputs for principal strain for many of the loading conditions; however, there are some loading conditions ... Subject: [Abaqus] Re: Principal Stress through USDFLD To: ***@yahoogroups.com Date: Thursday, January 22, 2009, 8:58 AM Dear Manoochehr, I suggest you to begin with an easy model for understanding what USDFLD subroutine does. I started with the following subroutine: C SUBROUTINE USDFLD(FIELD, STATEV,PNEWDT, DIRECT,T, CELENT, In a Matlab script, I've used the strain components to calculate max principal strain by calculating the maximum eigenvalue of the strain tensor, which I setup based on the strain components. The eigenvalue calculation matches what Abaqus outputs for principal strain for many of the loading conditions; however, there are some loading conditions ... MAXPS stands for “Maximum Principal Stress”. This is NOT a material property, it is the resulting principal stress under the applied loads. So - you do not “enter” the value. It is calculated. If you can’t see the difference between material properties and the calculated stress values - then you should stop using Abaqus. The terms step, increment, and iteration and two subsidiary terms—frame and attempt can be conceptually confusing to an Abaqus beginner. It is important that you clearly understand the difference between an analysis step, a load increment, and an iteration. 1.Step. A basic concept in Abaqus is the division of the problem history into steps.Fig. 5. P3 stress distribution for the overall structure Figs. 6 and 7 show, respectively, contours of maximum and minimum principal stresses P1 and P3 for the local lug region. The insert XY graphs show tensile principal stress running along the top lug fillet radius and compressive principal stresses running around the side fillet radius. Principal plane:- It is the oblique plane that experiences zero shear stress. For the components subjected to biaxial stresses, there are two planes on which the value of shear stress is zero. Thus to find a position of this principal plane (θ𝗽) from the reference plane, put τ τ = 0 in the equation of τ τ. 0 = ( σx − σy 2)sin2θP ... FE mesh and 3D max principal stress in Abaqus FE mesh of composite and load displacement curves 3D mesh of foot and simulated plantar pressure in Abaqus diabetic neuropathic and a healthy subject’s foot from MRI data, and to generate a high-quality mesh with conforming interfaces for simulation in Abaqus. Results agreed well See "Specifying field variable dependence" in "Material data definition," Section 9.1.2 of the ABAQUS Analysis User's Manual, for more information. Data lines to define the failure surface for a concrete model ... Ratio of the tensile principal stress value at cracking in plane stress, when the other nonzero principal stress component ...This is NOT a material property, it is the resulting principal stress under the applied loads. So - you do not “enter” the value.. Try to read ABAQUS help. S11 and S22 are usually along the local axes of the element, which most of the times are coincident with global axes. They are not necessarily the principal stresses. S12 .... For Abaqus/Explicit user subroutines that store stress and strain components according to the convention presented in “ Conventions, ” Section 1.2.2 of the Abaqus Analysis User's Manual, a number of utility routines are available for calculating principal stress/strain values and principal stress/strain directions from the relevant tensors. In Abaqus, my model uses shell elements. After the simulation when I try to compare the principal stresses, there are 4 possibilities : 1. Max In-plane Principal. 2. Max Principal. 3. Min In-plane Principal. 4. Min Principal. I was expecting 1. and 2. to produce the same values. Same goes with 3. and 4. 2D Planar Elements •Both the plane stress and the plane strain conditions can be modelled using 2D plane elements •2D Planar Elements are defined by at least 3 nodes in a two-dimensional plane (x-y plane) •These elements can be connected at common nodes and/or along common edges •Some of the example structures that can be modelled. "/> Apr 01, 2015 · ABSTRACTObjective: . To investigate the most reliable stress or strain parameters in subject-specific finite element (FE) models to predict success or failure of orthodontic mini-implants (OMIs).Materials and Methods: . Subject-specific FE analysis was applied to 28 OMIs used for anchorage. Each model was developed using two computed tomography data sets, the first taken before OMI placement ... 在abaqus中,一般是把x轴当做1轴,y轴当做2轴,z轴当做3轴;那么:. S11就是X轴向的应力,正值为拉应力,负值为压应力; S22就是Y轴向的应力,正值为拉应力,负值为压应力; S33就是Z轴向的应力,正值为拉应力,负值为压应力; S12 就是在YZ平面上,沿Y. The Mohr-Coulomb criterion assumes that failure is controlled by the maximum shear stress and that this failure shear stress depends on the normal stress. This can be represented by plotting Mohr's circle for states of stress at failure in terms of the maximum and minimum principal stresses.This video shows abaqus tutorials for beginners.This video gives you How to Find Stress,Displacement,Force at Particular Node and ElementOUR BLOG - https://t...Jun 24, 2014 · In substance for one point there is a plane where the shear stress is zero.The 3 principal stresses define the stress in this point respect the plane and his 3 direction. The 1st is the largest. the 3th is the smallest. They can be negative or positive, in substance the opposite limit stress (with shear 0). The equation to calculate Von Mises stress on a mechanical component. V = √ (σx2 - (σx * σy) + σy2 + (3 *txy2)) Where V is the Von Mises Stress. σx is the normal stress x component. σy is the normal Stress y component. τxy is the Shear Stress. When a mechanical component is acted upon by 3D loads a very complex three dimensional ...The stress and strain records (11 and 21, respectively) will be filtered out for processing by the ABAQUS utility routineSPRIND. When a stress or strain record is passed into SPRIND, principal stresses or strains and the corresponding principal directions are calculated and returned in an unsorted order.Maximum principal stresses in a steel pipe of 4-inch diameter for the two aforementioned cases are demonstrated in Figure 3, where the vehicle moves at 30 km/h. As can be seen in Figure 3, for small burial depths, maximum principal stresses in the steel pipe due to the moving vehicle are more critical in the direction parallel to the pipe axis ... Principal Stresses. It is defined as the normal stress calculated at an angle when shear stress is considered as zero. The normal stress can be obtained for maximum and minimum values. The maximum value of normal stress is known as major principal stress and minimum value of normal stress is known as minor principal stress. 2D Planar Elements •Both the plane stress and the plane strain conditions can be modelled using 2D plane elements •2D Planar Elements are defined by at least 3 nodes in a two-dimensional plane (x-y plane) •These elements can be connected at common nodes and/or along common edges •Some of the example structures that can be modelled. "/> Jun 24, 2014 · In substance for one point there is a plane where the shear stress is zero.The 3 principal stresses define the stress in this point respect the plane and his 3 direction. The 1st is the largest. the 3th is the smallest. They can be negative or positive, in substance the opposite limit stress (with shear 0). This is NOT a material property, it is the resulting principal stress under the applied loads. So - you do not “enter” the value.. Try to read ABAQUS help. S11 and S22 are usually along the local axes of the element, which most of the times are coincident with global axes. They are not necessarily the principal stresses. S12 .... About Press Copyright Contact us Creators Advertise Developers Terms Privacy Policy & Safety How YouTube works Test new features Press Copyright Contact us Creators ... For a 3D stress state the principal stresses become P1, P2 and P3. I'm currently working on setting-up a 2D bone remodeling problem of a femur from literature. I take a 2D femur geometry and give it an out-of plane plane stress / plane thickness in ABAQUS . Principal Stresses. It is defined as the normal stress calculated at an angle when shear stress is considered as zero. The normal stress can be obtained for maximum and minimum values. The maximum value of normal stress is known as major principal stress and minimum value of normal stress is known as minor principal stress. Principal Directions, Principal Stress. The normal stresses ( s x' and s y') and the shear stress ( t x'y') vary smoothly with respect to the rotation angle q, in accordance with the coordinate transformation equations. There exist a couple of particular angles where the stresses take on special values. First, there exists an angle q p where ... MAXPS stands for “Maximum Principal Stress”. This is NOT a material property, it is the resulting principal stress under the applied loads. So - you do not “enter” the value. It is calculated. If you can’t see the difference between material properties and the calculated stress values - then you should stop using Abaqus. The stress and strain records (11 and 21, respectively) will be filtered out for processing by the ABAQUS utility routineSPRIND. When a stress or strain record is passed into SPRIND, principal stresses or strains and the corresponding principal directions are calculated and returned in an unsorted order. 3.2 Principal stresses. The calculation of principal stresses in 3D can be a relatively cumbersome process [1]; however they can also be determined from the eigenvalues of the stress tensor.. The principal stresses are defined by their algebraic magnitude, i.e. . Due to the way the principal stresses are defined, none of them are suitable for ... This is NOT a material property, it is the resulting principal stress under the applied loads. So - you do not “enter” the value.. Try to read ABAQUS help. S11 and S22 are usually along the local axes of the element, which most of the times are coincident with global axes. They are not necessarily the principal stresses. S12 .... Abaqus python max principal stress I finally found a solution to my problem which could help a lot of people (at least it helped my colleages). The solution proposed by max9111 to average stress values at the external node is the perfect and only solution if you want to know stresses at the surface through Abaqus scripting.For Abaqus/Explicit user subroutines that store stress and strain components according to the convention presented in “ Conventions, ” Section 1.2.2 of the Abaqus Analysis User's Manual, a number of utility routines are available for calculating principal stress/strain values and principal stress/strain directions from the relevant tensors. ABAQUS provides output of the shear stresses at each slave node that uses a surface interaction model containing frictional properties. The shear stresses, CSHEAR1 and CSHEAR2, are given in the two orthogonal slip directions, which are constructed on the master surface (see "Contact formulation for ABAQUS /Standard contact pairs," Section 21. The use of principal stress as a failure criterion should be restricted to brittle materials such as ceramics. Whilst it can be used in ductile materials such as steel, it is conservative in these applications. The von Mises criterion, which is a function of the three principal stresses, is far more accurate for ductile materials. The von Mises ...The use of principal stress as a failure criterion should be restricted to brittle materials such as ceramics. Whilst it can be used in ductile materials such as steel, it is conservative in these applications. The von Mises criterion, which is a function of the three principal stresses, is far more accurate for ductile materials. The von Mises ...consider two-dimensional stress state and the corresponding principal stresses such as σ1 >σ2 >σ3. Where σ3=0, σ2 may be compressive or tensile depending on the loading conditions where σ2 may be less or greater than σ3. According to maximum principal stress theory, failure will occur when. σ1 or σ2 =σy or σt. ABAQUS provides output of the shear stresses at each slave node that uses a surface interaction model containing frictional properties. The shear stresses, CSHEAR1 and CSHEAR2, are given in the two orthogonal slip directions, which are constructed on the master surface (see "Contact formulation for ABAQUS /Standard contact pairs," Section 21. The configuration of the Abaqus model is done in AAA.inp and can be modified. Running the software ISML/ Run AAA_RunAbaqus.bat and then AAA_ExtractStress.bat. Another option is to use the Abaqus CAE to import AAA.inp, review the configuration, create a job, perform the analysis, then run the python script In Abaqus (and other FEA programs as well) stress is calculate in so called integration points. These points are inside each element. But after the analysis user want to know the distribution of the stress over entire model. That's why the values from integration points are extrapolated to nodes.The equivalent stress can be calculated in two ways, by using; 1) Von-Mises' formula which reaches the final value directly from the Primary and Shear stresses, and; 2) polynomial solution via the principal stresses. Both of which are completely different calculation methods. By way of an internal check, Combined Stress calculates the ... In Abaqus, my model uses shell elements. After the simulation when I try to compare the principal stresses, there are 4 possibilities : 1. Max In-plane Principal. 2. Max Principal. 3. Min In-plane Principal. 4. Min Principal. I was expecting 1. and 2. to produce the same values. Same goes with 3. and 4. These are the principal values of the pure shear case in the global coordinate system. In 2-D, the principal stress orientation, θP θ P, can be computed by setting τ ′ xy = 0 τ ′ x y = 0 in the above shear equation and solving for θ θ to get θP θ P, the principal stress angle. 0 = (σyy −σxx)sinθP cosθP +τ xy(cos2θP − ... The stress and strain records (11 and 21, respectively) will be filtered out for processing by the ABAQUS utility routineSPRIND. When a stress or strain record is passed into SPRIND, principal stresses or strains and the corresponding principal directions are calculated and returned in an unsorted order.For Abaqus/Explicit user subroutines that store stress and strain components according to the convention presented in “ Conventions, ” Section 1.2.2 of the Abaqus Analysis User's Manual, a number of utility routines are available for calculating principal stress/strain values and principal stress/strain directions from the relevant tensors. Subject: [Abaqus] Re: Principal Stress through USDFLD To: ***@yahoogroups.com Date: Thursday, January 22, 2009, 8:58 AM Dear Manoochehr, I suggest you to begin with an easy model for understanding what USDFLD subroutine does. I started with the following subroutine: C SUBROUTINE USDFLD(FIELD, STATEV,PNEWDT, DIRECT,T, CELENT, This video shows abaqus tutorials for beginners.This video gives you How to Find Stress,Displacement,Force at Particular Node and ElementOUR BLOG - https://t...Abaqus python max principal stress I finally found a solution to my problem which could help a lot of people (at least it helped my colleages). The solution proposed by max9111 to average stress values at the external node is the perfect and only solution if you want to know stresses at the surface through Abaqus scripting.ABAQUS provides output of the shear stresses at each slave node that uses a surface interaction model containing frictional properties. The shear stresses, CSHEAR1 and CSHEAR2, are given in the two orthogonal slip directions, which are constructed on the master surface (see "Contact formulation for ABAQUS /Standard contact pairs," Section 21. In a Matlab script, I've used the strain components to calculate max principal strain by calculating the maximum eigenvalue of the strain tensor, which I setup based on the strain components. The eigenvalue calculation matches what Abaqus outputs for principal strain for many of the loading conditions; however, there are some loading conditions ... consider two-dimensional stress state and the corresponding principal stresses such as σ1 >σ2 >σ3. Where σ3=0, σ2 may be compressive or tensile depending on the loading conditions where σ2 may be less or greater than σ3. According to maximum principal stress theory, failure will occur when. σ1 or σ2 =σy or σt. This video shows abaqus tutorials for beginners.This video gives you how to determine radial and hoop stressin Abaqus in abaqus 6.14.OUR BLOG - https://tren... Principal Stresses. It is defined as the normal stress calculated at an angle when shear stress is considered as zero. The normal stress can be obtained for maximum and minimum values. The maximum value of normal stress is known as major principal stress and minimum value of normal stress is known as minor principal stress. Maximum principal stresses in a steel pipe of 4-inch diameter for the two aforementioned cases are demonstrated in Figure 3, where the vehicle moves at 30 km/h. As can be seen in Figure 3, for small burial depths, maximum principal stresses in the steel pipe due to the moving vehicle are more critical in the direction parallel to the pipe axis ... May 30, 2013 · Maximum Principal. This command sets the results display to calculate the maximum principal stress (S1) for displaying or data output. The principal stress can be displayed for element types with area (2D, plates, and so on) and volume (bricks). Positive (+) indicates tension, and negative (-) indicates compression. consider two-dimensional stress state and the corresponding principal stresses such as σ1 >σ2 >σ3. Where σ3=0, σ2 may be compressive or tensile depending on the loading conditions where σ2 may be less or greater than σ3. According to maximum principal stress theory, failure will occur when. σ1 or σ2 =σy or σt. Sep 16, 2020 · The principal stresses and the stress invariants are important parameters that are used in failure criteria, plasticity, Mohr's circle etc. For every point inside a body under static equilibrium there are three planes, called the principal planes, where the stress vector is normal to the plane and there is no shear component (see also ... This is NOT a material property, it is the resulting principal stress under the applied loads. So - you do not “enter” the value.. Try to read ABAQUS help. S11 and S22 are usually along the local axes of the element, which most of the times are coincident with global axes. They are not necessarily the principal stresses. S12 .... About Press Copyright Contact us Creators Advertise Developers Terms Privacy Policy & Safety How YouTube works Test new features Press Copyright Contact us Creators ...For three-dimensional, (generalized) plane strain, and axisymmetric elements all three principal values are obtained. For plane stress, membrane, and shell elements, the out-of-plane principal value cannot be requested for history-type output. For field-type output, ABAQUS/CAE always reports the out-of-plane principal value as zero.Using these values the principal stresses can be calculated and the equation to calculate the principal stresses are available in any strength of material books. The way you have calculated i.e....Cite this chapter (2004). Plane Strain and Plane Stress . In: Elasticity. Solid Mechanics and Its Applications, vol 107. For three-dimensional, (generalized) plane strain, and axisymmetric elements all three principal values are obtained. For plane stress, membrane, and shell elements, the out-of-plane principal value cannot be requested for history-type output. For field-type output, ABAQUS/CAE always reports the out-of-plane principal value as zero. discontinued leupold scopes for saleadd key value to object typescriptnj motor vehicle license renewalasko washing machine